Nov 10, 2017 in Research

Essay on Critical Theories

Question 1: Foucault’s Analysis of Power

Michel Foucault stands out as one of the sole pioneers behind the comprehension of the various perspectives of power with the continued result of shaping up the essence of modernism. The fundamental knowledge of power stems from the assertion that it is an instrument of coercion, an implication that the individuals at the helm of leadership are meant to use their power as a forceful means of instilling influence and commanding the essence of respect from the subjects. However, the exploits of Foucault has translated to a revolution of the school of thought to give a new dimension to power as being everywhere and an aspect that needs to be embraced in the standing of the positive perspectives on the life of the subjects (Rengger & Thirkell-White 2008). The approaches allude to the concept of power as being the ideal consideration in determining the developmental perspectives in the societal standing.

At the forefront of the features of Foucault’s analysis is the diffuse nature of power that deviates from the primary thought that power is concentrated. The assertions he makes diverge from the standard idea of power being a central aspect that is at the disposal of a marginal group of individuals that use the opportunity as a means of furthering personal agenda. The majority in most of the standard settings associate power with an aspect tantamount to a setup where the groups that wield the various perspectives of dominance undermine the wellbeing of the majority in light of their individual quests. The ideas presented allude to the perspective that power is everywhere, an implication that the standard aspects are meant to be of service to the majority. There is the deviation from the mainstream expectation that power is a means to an end in the pursuit of personal gains to the individuals with influence (Brincat et al. 2011). The modalities under consideration in the establishment of the elements of power are indicative of a setting where the ultimate desire is to enact policies with the potency that the majority would be the beneficiaries.

Another crucial feature of Foucault’s analysis of power is the recognition of the positive and productive elements that are attainable in the standing of the consideration of the beneficial aspects leadership. The association of power with negativity and other salient views in the shape of coercion have been significant in undermining the due comprehension of the perspectives pertaining to it, with the eventual expectation that it is aspect with the potency to compel individuals into doing things that are not favorable. The rationale behind this is the limited choice that the people subjected to the power have. Foucault identifies that the negative light of viewing the concept of power has the effect of masking the productivity that tends to emanate from power. Power is meant to be the foundation of progress among people owing to the betterment of the standard elements pertaining to life (Rengger & Thirkell-White 2000). There is the due focus on the basic trends that present limitations on the essence of progress that is attained. There is a shift in the focus to identify the salient aspects with the potential that the typical drawbacks in the achievements that would be amassed by the masses are reviewed.

According to Foucault, power marks the onset of social discipline and the essence of conformity that would be attained in view of the same. The principles presented are tantamount to a shift in focus from the standard expectations that associate power with coercion of subjects as well as the concentration of the ruling frameworks in a central feudal system to embrace the disciplinary system. In the system is highlighted the long-term solutions that are presented to help in the revolution of people, for instances, the establishment of the prison system. With the system, there is a justification of the need for rehabilitation of people to observe the highlighted benchmark in the form of the law. The objective is to attain an improvement relative to the challenges faced by the affected individuals. The surveillance in the process reflects the essence of positivity relative to the observations that are meant to identify the shortfalls and champion the appropriate measures with the potential capabilities of permanently plugging the deficiencies.

Application to the International Realm

Foucault’s analysis of power is applicable to the international realm in a wider scope that stems from the implication of the essence of biopower. With the concept, there is the potential to use disciplinary power in the management of the populations to achieve adequate control on some of the most fundamental problems. The positive use of power relative to the concepts reiterated by Foucault underscore the introduction of policy frameworks that allude to the potential that there would be a review of the challenges facing the populations so that befitting countermeasures are rolled out to meet the standard expectations. The management of such aspects as business would be effective in light of the consideration of the positivity that would be deduced from the establishment of wholesome approaches to further the interests of the majority.

The business operations would be boosted through the setting of power expectations to incorporate beneficial policies with the result that the core competencies of business operations would be in the offing. The essence of global economic progress would also be feasible for realization as a result of the favorable power mechanisms introduced into the mainstream modus operandi. The sustainability from the same would also be the basis upon which globalization is progressed.

Question 2: The Idea of ‘Emancipation’

The idea of emancipation in the study of international relations portrays the due efforts that are incorporated in an attempt to attain an improvement in the political and social rights as well as the economic focus due to the consideration of the perspectives on equality. There is a wide scope of the view on the need for every adult to be accorded the right to vote. The notion of resistance presents entail the staging of conflict with the underlying perspective of meeting the standard social needs (Roach 2007). There is not the element of violence in vouching for the standard expectations. However, the approaches that are commonly in use are not reflective of the requirements outlined in the law.

The idea of emancipation is more appropriate than the notions presented on resistance. The rationale for this is the use of the logical and lawful approaches with the implication that the ultimate result would be in awe of the support for the essence of equality. The efforts of the plans for emancipation look to further the political rights that the persons in the population confines have. There is the due focus on the fundamental and alienable rights that every citizen needs to be accorded. The proposed policies are, therefore, reflective of the support needed to improve the conditions of the living of the individuals. The economic and social rights are the salient considerations that explore the basic rights reserved for people. Such rights as the access to quality health care services, education, and the preservation of the essence of culture are considered. In the international relations perspective, there is the tendency to focus on the global perspectives with the likelihood that the societal setting and the cultural norms favored by particular groups would be undermined. The desire for a fully functional business system in the international domain would be an equivalent of the local basics being overlooked.

With emancipation comes the desire to review the perspectives with the potential to have a direct effect on the locals. Even though there is the ultimate desire of attaining an improvement in the standing of the globalization, the primary focus is on the welfare of the individuals in the local population setting. There is an emphasis on equality that is inferred to enact policies with the potency to accord fair dealings relative to the engagement in the international perspectives. There is the active involvement of the population in the policy making process owing to the representatives that front the primary ideas borne by the majority, such is the approach that is considered ideal in the quest to yield the critical perspectives on equality (Roach 2010). The adequate representation of the viewpoints of the majority is tantamount to a setting in which the salient aspects viewed paramount in the formation of the essence of ruling is considerate of the contribution that it would make in improving the living standards of the majority.

The active encouragement of the people to be involved in the democratic system is an indication of the desire to introduce policies with the potential for an improvement of the standard mode of life. The opportunities created are consistent with the mainstream legal agenda. There is the observation of the civic rights of everyone in the approaches that are considered for use. The establishment of the aspects with the potential to yield equality would be the basis on which most of the popular injustices in the societal setting, for instance, prejudice, would be curtailed. The key ideals furthered would take the form of an equal representation of the all the cultures regardless of the background and the belief systems that are identified in the context. The positivity associated with the same would be an equivalent of the introduction of the sought-after developmental perspectives. The elements of equality would also be reflected in the equitable distribution of resources and the equal access to the available opportunities. The anticipated development would, therefore, be replicable and applicable to the entire population.

The underwhelming aspects of the notion of resistance limit its appropriateness relative to the study of international relations. The acts of commission are communicative of the engagement in the activities that are not within the expectations of the societal perspective. The actions in this standing are also not reflective of the provisions of the law. There is also the essence of the acts of omission that are inclusive of the involvement of people in furthering the acts not in accord with the normal expectations. The only challenge that manifests in this focus is the consistency exhibited. As such, there is bound to be the emergence of inequitable resource distribution emanating from the disparity within the different categories of people or groups that would have the power of influence to further individual agenda (Burchill et al. 2013). The aspect of inequality is also likely to set in due to the disparity in the cultural expectations. The belief system contains the capacity of involvement of its members in the various public and societal planning. The set of goals is likely to be undermined in view of the pursuit of the ultimate expectations. Therefore, the overall setting introduced is communicative of a setup with limited equality in the system. The distribution of resources would not be indicative of the primary objective of equitable development. There would be the emergence of a society where the set of laws are not consistently adhered to.

Reference List

Brincat S. et al., 2011, Critical Theory in International Relations and Security Studies, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415601580.

Burchill, S, Linklater, A, Devetak, R, Donnelly, J, Nardin, T, Paterson, M, Reus-Smit, C & True, J, 2013. Theories of International Relations. Palgrave Macmillan.

Jones, WR, 2000, Critical Theory and World Politics, Lynne Rienner, ISBN 978-1555878023.

Rengger, N & Thirkell-White, T, 2008, Critical International Relations Theory After 25 Years, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521714259.

Roach, S, 2007, Critical Theory and International Relations, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415954198.

Roach, S, 2010, Critical Theory of International Relations, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415774857.

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